By Malcolm T Sanford
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Extra info for 4H - Beekeeping Basic Manual
The possibility of estimating shock-wave parameters for an explosion near the surface using known relationships for underground explosions has been discussed several times. The question of defining parameters for pulse application to some point of the surface of a semispace remains quite complex. As has been noted previously , cavity growth in electrical explosion on the surface of water proceeds according to a law close to the law of self similar motion at constant energy. It seems it was pioneer work because this fact allow to introduce the energy transferred to the ground and estimate its value (perhaps somewhat arbitrarily) by comparing the mechanical action parameters of contact and slightly submerged charges.
Et al (1987). Hydrodynamic cumulative effects in conic thermonuclear targets. 187. F. et al (1989). The numerical modeling of non-regular shock wave reflection in condencing matter. of chemical physics. 1-71. (The paper was presented in the all-union conf. "Equation of state", February 1988). , Kryukov B. E. (1996) Influence of conditions of initiation on flow regimes at creation of the Mach configuration, Book of abstracts of the International conference "Mathematical models and numerical methods of a continuum mechanics ", Novosibirsk, May 27 - June 2.
Since 34 Computational Fluid Dynamics Technologies and Applications these values will, in general, vary with space and time, f M ( x , v ) is called the local Maxwellian distribution function. Therefore, if the external body force is neglected and the BGK model is used to replace the collision integral, the following Boltzmann equation with BGK approximation can be obtained: ∂f 1 + v • ∇f = − f − f M τ ∂t ( or ∂f 1 + v • ∇f = − f − f ( eq ) τ ∂t ( ) ) (7) where, f ( ) is the local equilibrium distribution or local Maxwellian distribution.