By Terje Mathiassen
Publication via TERJE MATHIASSEN
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Additional resources for A Short Grammar of Lithuanian
In Cap. XVI, you will learn that Medus is also Greek. There were different types of slaves; the slaves in our story are house-slaves, but Julius owns other slaves who worked in the fields and the mines. There were highly educated slaves who could teach children (and their masters), and act as secretaries and scribes. There were skilled chefs (who were highly prized—and very expensive). One of Aemilia’s ancillae would have acted as her hairdresser, ōrnātrīx. There were pedisequī and pedisequae, slaves who were in constant attendance on their masters (the name means someone who follows one’s footsteps).
A verb (Latin verbum) is a word that expresses an action or a state: that someone does something or that something exists or takes place. The first Latin verb you come across is cantat in the opening sentence: Iūlia cantat. Other verbs are pulsat, plōrat, rīdet, videt, vocat, venit, etc. They all end in ‑t—like est, which is also a verb—and mostly come at the end of the sentence. 18 III. Puer Improbus 19 Verbs ‑at ‑et ‑it cantat, pulsat, plōrat rīdet, videt, respondet venit, audit, dormit Like nouns, verbs are grouped into categories, called conjugations (coniugātiōnēs); verbs in the 1st conjugation have stems ending in ‑ā, in the 2nd in ‑ē, in the 4th in ‑ī.
26). Our evidence for windows is slight, but Pliny the Younger (Gāius Plīnius Caecilius Secundus), a Roman who lived a little before our narrative (around AD 62–113), includes several mentions of windows in his description of his seaside villa. While Roman houses in towns had either a private façade broken only by the door or an attached shop front (as you will see in Cap. VIII), they did not have windows looking out onto the street. It is most likely that windows were more common in the private parts of houses and when they provided a view.