Abelian categories. An introduction to the theory of by Peter Freyd

By Peter Freyd

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As an energy reserve d-glucose is stored in the form of polysaccharides: starch in plants and glycogen in animals. Starch normally comprises 80% amylopectin and 20% amylose (an a-d-glucan; Fig. 9), although some compositional variations exist. Its structure, therefore, differs from that of cellulose in containing a C-6 branch in the amylopectin units, which occurs about every 20–25 glucose units, and also in the configuration at C-1. Glycogen has a similar structure to amylopectin but with more frequent branching.

Present-day 21%; Berner & Canfield 1989). The charcoal lower limit in Fig. ), the level at which vegetation fires can occur forming charcoal, which is found in the fossil record since the rise of woody plants c. ), although at such elevated levels runaway vegetation fires become a likelihood,which would limit the O2 levels (hence the upper limit for stage III in Fig. 8). ; Lenton & Watson 2000), a variety of adaptations has been noted that could be associated with elevated oxygen levels around the Carboniferous–Permian boundary, such as giantism in insects and invasion of the land by vertebrates (Graham et al.

However, it was still possible to compare the absolute configurations of different molecules by relating them to an optically active reference compound, glyceraldehyde (see Fig. 2a), which is biosynthetically related to a variety of other natural products. The absolute configuration of the (+) enantiomer of glyceraldehyde was arbitrarily assigned the D label, and that of the (-) enantiomer the L label (see Fig. 2a). A compound that can be converted into D-glyceraldehyde by reactions that conserve the configuration of the stereogenic centre in the compound is also given the D label, while one that can be converted to Lglyceraldehyde is given the L label.

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