Adolescent Problems - Guide for Teachers, Parents, by D. Nicolson, H. Ayers

By D. Nicolson, H. Ayers

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Transference can also occur in relation to institutions as can counter-transference. Relationships between a student and a teacher can be transferential in that the student may transfer positive or negative feelings towards their teacher as though his or her teacher were their parent. Counter-transference is where, for example, teachers experience intense feelings evoked by their students’ behaviour. It can be positive or negative. Where students come for advice to teachers, teachers may feel inadequate or guilty in not being able to help the student.

It must be realised that inadvertently, inappropriate behaviour can also be positively reinforced. ● Positive reinforcement must be consistently applied and must be made conditional on appropriate behaviour. e. a series of approximations to the behaviour will need to be reinforced before the target behaviour is achieved. Rewards must be ones that adolescents themselves perceive as such and they must be sufficiently desirable to motivate them to change their behaviour. e. peaks and troughs, and because of this there is a need to look out for upward or downward trends in behaviour across time.

It should be proportionate to the misbehaviour. ● It should be consistently applied. e. a reduction or complete extinction of the misbehaviour. ● It should be coupled with reinforcers or rewards for appropriate behaviour. For the behavioural approach to be effective it must be consistently applied over a period of time. 23 Theoretical approaches to adolescent problems In practical terms, teachers and parents should remember what the adolescent’s behaviour was like in order to identify increases or trends in positive behaviour.

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