By H Lee Willis; Randall R Schrieber; Gregory V Welch
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Willis and R. W. Powell, "Load Forecasting for Transmission Planning," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, August 1985, p. 2550. H. L. Willis, Spatial Electric Load Forecasting, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996. H. L. Willis, Power Distribution Planning Reference Book, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997. Copyright © 2001 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures 35 H. L. Willis and J. E. D. Northcote-Green, "Spatial Load Forecasting ~ A Tutorial Review," Proceedings of the IEEE, Feb.
An untapped resource As a result, distribution systems in most utilities are underutilized in two ways: 1. Economics — when viewed just from their standpoint of their traditional function moving and dispersing power they cost more than is necessary. 2. Reliability - the potential of the primary system to maximally contribute to improved reliability is partially untapped in the vast majority of cases. xx gives statistics on the results of "distribution optimization" studies from six utilities, which the authors' have recently worked.
Reliable power delivery means delivering all of the power demanded not just some of the power needed, and doing so all of the time. Anything less than near perfection in meeting this goal is considered unacceptable. 9% reliability of service may sound impressive, it means nearly nine hours of electric service interruption each year, an amount that would be unacceptable in nearly any first-world country. 1 See Distributed Power Generation - Planning and Evaluation, by H. L. Willis and W. G. Scott, Marcel Dekker, 2000.