Animals as Domesticates: A World View through History by Juliet Clutton-Brock

By Juliet Clutton-Brock

Drawing at the most recent examine in archaeozoology, archaeology, and molecular biology, Animals as Domesticates strains the heritage of the domestication of animals worldwide. From the llamas of South the US and the turkeys of North the USA, to the livestock of India and the Australian dingo, this interesting booklet explores the historical past of the advanced relationships among people and their household animals. With professional perception into the organic and cultural tactics of domestication, Clutton-Brock indicates how the human intuition for nurturing can have reworked relationships among predator and prey, and he or she explains how animals became partners, cattle, and workers. The altering face of domestication is traced from the unfold of the earliest cattle round the Neolithic outdated global via historic Egypt, the Greek and Roman empires, South East Asia, and as much as the trendy commercial age.

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Extra resources for Animals as Domesticates: A World View through History

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Farther north and up into the Arctic, human populations depended (and still depend) on the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) for all their resources. Of all the manifold relationships that humans have had with hoofed animals, that with reindeer is unique, and it has also had the longest duration. From 20,000 years ago until the melting of the ice, reindeer were hunted as they lived and migrated over Europe, as far south as Spain. By the beginning of the Holocene, 10,000 years ago, the reindeer, which are supremely adapted in their physiology and diet to life in arctic conditions, had retreated to northern and arctic Europe and Asia.

The dog should therefore be given a different Latin name from the wolf, and the most parsimonious arrangement is to continue to call the dog and all other fully domestic animals by the Latin names they were first given by Linnaeus in the eighteenth century, which for the dog was Canis familiaris. 20 There are, in addition, some species that have the same Latin name in the domestic as in the wild species—for example, the reindeer, Rangifer tarandus. The Latin names are important because they give an individual identity to the domestic species, and, at the same time, they indicate the degree of relationship to other species.

1 The archaeozoological evidence indicates that wolves were the first species to be domesticated, and it is not difficult to see why, for the gray wolf (Canis lupus), progenitor of all dogs, is a ubiquitous species that was originally distributed over the entire Northern Hemisphere. Wolves can flourish in lands that vary from the deserts of Arabia to the Arctic tundra. While Eurasia was still covered in ice sheets, wolves that became dogs, being carnivores and scavengers, could live off the detritus around the temporary camps of nomadic human hunters, even where the winter temperature reached minus 30 degrees Celsius or even lower, and they could travel over any distances in a symbiotic relationship with their human companions.

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